Exposure to Toxic Stress can be a matter of Life or Death for many African Americans living in Poverty in Hammond, Louisiana.

Back of Hammond Jr High School

“Justice is the concept of fairness. Social justice is fairness as it manifests in society. That includes fairness in healthcare, employment, housing, and more” (humanrightscareers.com). The connection between social justice and human rights has strengthened over the years to the point where many use “social justice” and “human rights” interchangeably. While they are technically different, it’s clear to activists that one can’t thrive without the other. When a society is just, it protects and respects everyone’s human rights. When a society respects and promotes human rights, social justice flourishes. When activists fight for social justice, they can lean on the connection with human rights to hold governments, corporations, and individuals accountable (humanrightcareers.com, 2024, p. 1). This statement from Human Rights Careers resonated with me and I found it to be perfect to add as an introduction.  

I thought I would begin this article once I settled in my home for the evening. The dire and pressing concerns along with vivid mental images of poverty will not allow me to sleep on the plane. The thoughts are quite overpowering. Upon my departure from my favorite hometown of Hammond, Louisiana, I was filled with a great deal of emotions, due to several observations of despair in certain communities but not others. As a trained social scientist and educator, I have spent a vast amount of my life writing, teaching, preaching, as well as providing workshops to teachers, communities, administrators, parents, and all forms of educators about equity, equality, gender roles, discrimination, incarceration of African American men, social economic status, and families living below the poverty line. 

“The experience of African Americans (and other groups of color) in the United States is inextricably linked to the pursuit of social justice and equity. The contours of this journey have focused on redressing legal, economic, political, social, and educational conditions that served to repress and constrain black Americans in the U.S.” (Marable & Mullings, 2000). Race, as an intervening factor, has played a vital role in creating and sustaining these inequitable conditions. With just one drive around Hammond, anyone with a trained sociology background will be able to predict future outcomes for children reared in middle-class families and children raised in grating poverty. Growing up in poverty tends to leave social and many times physical scares. On Sunday morning, I decided to take a ride for coffee. I scanned all corners of my favorite hometown. There were some signs of glimmer, hope, and joy. Albeit, I witnessed a great deal of sadness, depression, and oppression. One cannot see people who mirror themselves and not become affected emotionally. Poverty more than not is inherited from generation to generation for African Americans. Reeves, 2021 states white families rarely if ever passed down poverty from generation to generation. Most recent research findings show only 1.3% of whites experience third-generation poverty. However, this is not true for African Americans. “More than 1 in 5 Black Americans (21.3%) are 3rd generation of their family to be poor’ (Reeves, 2021, p. 1). 

People who have never experience growing up in poverty, many times drop the ball as it relates to truly understanding the challenges people face while living below the poverty line. People living in poverty have to face obstacles such as negative social perceptions, shame, violence, early death, blame, child abuse, sexual abuse and don’t forget food deprivation concerns.  “Poverty, and all the ills associated with poverty, such as disease, inequality, violence, and exploitation increase the risk on non-schooling and increase the school dropout rates” (Compassion.com 2024).  

My areas of focus continue to shed light on the stressors associated with poverty. Stressors such as child physical abuse, child sexual abuse, child emotional abuse, emotional neglect, mental illness in the home, drug addicted or alcoholic family members, and witnessing domestic violence against the mother. These stressors are also known as Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) before the age of 18. Despite race, ethnicity, or gender living below the poverty line can be quite debilitating for the entire community to say the least.  

In this section, it’s necessary for the researcher to make the case as to what people are experiencing and possible reasons as to why. According to World Population Review (2024), Hammond has a population of 22,705. Making it the largest city in Tangipahoa Parish. As it relates to the breakdown of demographics, whites comprise 52% of 22,705 followed by African Americans at a rate of 45% or 8,638. The median household income is $42,049. The median families’ income is $59,094, median married families’ income is $95, 592, and non-families income is $29,777. The poverty rate in Hammond, Louisiana is 37%. Decade after decade, the census report continues to show married families earn more money and are less likely to live in poverty. 12% of African Americans who participated in the survey were married and 67.1% have never married. 36% of White Americans who participated in the survey were married and 46.6% have never married. 47% of Asian Americans who participated in the survey were married and 53% have never married. People often times brag on the fact they are not married and believe marriage is outdated. I will say I am not promoting marriage, but it’s naïve to say marriage is outdated. That’s equivalent to saying babies are outdated. I am saying married families across the board, do better than single mother families year after year and on multiple levels. This is true for Hammond’s residents as well. Married couples in Hammond fair better than unmarried families. This is also true for educated married couples compared to uneducated couples. 

Figure 1: Hammond’s Population and Demographics (World Population Review, 2024)

https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/hammond-la-population

Figure 2: Hammond Marital Status by Race & Ethnicity (World Population Review, 2024)

One’s educational attainment impacts their lifetime earnings and have a direct impact on where you may live as it relates to violence in neighborhoods, low credit-score neighborhoods, poor health outcomes for residents, and the quality of education children may receive.  

There are 563 or 5.22% of Hammond’s population with less than a 9th grade education.  There are 909 or 8.43% of the Hammond’s population who completed at least 9th through 11th grade, but still did not graduated from high school. 26.4% or 2, 846 of Hammond’s population are high school graduates. As it relates to some college, 2,036 or 18.89% of the population attending at least one semester of college or other postsecondary institutions, but did not graduate. 1,010 or 9.37% of the residents who completed the college attainment survey have an associate degree. 2,210 or 20.5% have a bachelors degree. Finally, 1,206 or 11.19% of Hammond’s residents have a post graduate degree.  

Figure 3: Educational Attainment by residents of Hammond (WPR, 2024)

https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/hammond-la-population

For additional clarity, it’s extremely important to peel back the educational attainment onion. I am a firm believer that education attainment has an impact on just about everything else moving forward in a person’s life. This graph provides glaring clarity of college attainment by race and ethnicity.

Figure 4: Hammond Educational Attainment by Race (WPR, 2024)

2,615 or 32% of whites surveyed have a bachelor degree. A disappointing 446 or 7.1% of African Americans who took the survey have a bachelor degree. 82 of 788 Latinos who took the survey have a bachelor’s degree. There are 295 Asians who are part of the demographic data. 138 of 295 or 47% of Asians have attained a bachelor degree. The highest of all racial and ethnic groups.  

These colossal differences in educational attainment are profoundly clear. These data sets provide evidence which helps to paint the picture for the reader to understand how people arrived at their outcomes. Not only do the graphs provide light, they leave no doubt of the importance of educational attainment. The graphs also show educational attainment has a direct impact on one’s lifetime earnings, where one lives, and educational attainment is a significant determining factor for health, dental, and vision care insurances. With this said, there is a correlation between level of education and life expectancy. The more one is educated the longer their life expectancy.  Yale University conducted a 30 years research study for the purpose of determining the impact of education on future outcomes. The study traced subjects from their 20s to their mid 50s. The research findings show, “that the level of education, and not race, is the best predictor of who will live the longest. Among the 5,114 people followed in the study, 395 died” (Hataway, 2020).  

Figure 5: Hammond Poverty by Race (World Population Review, 2024)

Figure 6: Poverty and Level of Educational Attainment (World Population Review, 2024)

As you can see from the graphs, there is a direct connection between education attainment and the rate poverty.  It is at this point of the article that I the researcher elaborate on the possible negative consequences for children growing up in dire poverty. In the next section of this article, the researcher will show how living in poverty exposes children to the stressors of poverty known as Adverse Childhood Experiences or ACEs. Adverse Childhood Experiences are forms of harmful trauma. 

Figure 7: Types of Adverse Childhood Experiences

The Center for Disease & Control states, “Adverse childhood experiences, or ACEs, are potentially traumatic events that occur in childhood (0-17 years). For example: 

  • experiencing violence, abuse, or neglect 
  • witnessing violence in the home or community 
  • having a family member attempt or die by suicide 

Also included are aspects of the child’s environment that can undermine their sense of safety, stability, and bonding, such as growing up in a household with: 

  • substance use problems 
  • mental health problems 
  • instability due to parental separation or household members being in jail or prison” (CDC, 2024). These stressors or ACEs are more likely to occur in areas with high poverty such Hammond. The data suggest, 56 % of Hammond African Americans are living in poverty. However, children from all economic backgrounds can be exposed to traumatic events. I think it is important for me to make sure this is stated. Adverse Childhood Experiences do not discriminate. So it’s important to provide wrap around supports for all children and their families. No one should be over looked. Why do I find this important to bring this to the attention of Hammond Citizens? It’s simple.

“ACEs are linked to chronic health problems, mental illness, and substance use problems in adolescence and adulthood. ACEs can also negatively impact education, job opportunities, and earning potential” (CDC, 2024). “Research shows that as the number of ACEs rise, risk factors for negative life outcomes increase. This increase makes children more susceptible to negative mental behavioral and physical health problems, including: opioid abuse, depression, alcohol and drug abuse, suicidal thoughts and criminal behavior. ACEs diminish the likelihood of success in school and the workplace” (https://goyff.az.gov/ACEs). 

Poverty is a social factor or one’s daily exposures within their environments. Poverty is not biological. But make no mistake about it. The social toxic stressors associated with poverty cause humans to remain in the fight or flight state and never turning off, which is damaging to organs within the human body.  Psychologist and psychiatrist compare ACEs to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. PTSD produces cortisol. When cortisol is constantly secreted throughout the body, it causes the body harm. Exposure to ongoing toxic stressors or Adverse Childhood Experiences can lead to horrific outcomes and possible shorten life. “Many people do not realize that exposure to ACEs are associated with increased risk for health problems across their lifespan” (CDC, 2024).  

Cortisol helps the body respond to stress or other external factors. However, when one lives in violent communities which includes gun violence toward its community citizens, the indirect violence can potentially harm the health of the surrounding residents, due to their consistent exposure to toxic stressors. Consequently, the overall community is negatively impacted. Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone that your adrenal glands produce and release. Glucocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone. They suppress inflammation in all of your bodily tissues and control metabolism in your muscles, fat, liver and bones. Glucocorticoids also affect sleep-wake cycles. “Cortisol is a necessary hormone that affects almost every organ and tissue in your body. It plays many important roles, including: regulating your body stress response, suppressing inflammation, regulating blood pressure, as well as regulate blood sugar” (Cleveland Clinic, 2024). The human body consistently regulates cortisol levels for balance or homeostasis.  However, this may not be the case for people living in poverty and violence. This is a very serious matter and one that should be consistently addressed in communities, YMCA, churches, trauma informed schools, as well as trauma informed police officers and families.

A constant dose of cortisol is harmful and may contribute to earlier death for people constantly living in traumatic environments. Traumatic environments are usually saturated with criminal activities as well as poor academic outcomes for its residents. In Hammond, Louisiana, 56% of the African American communities live below the poverty line. Over half of African Americans and 18% of White Americans living in poverty in Hammond also have poor academic outcomes. Making the correlation between academic outcomes and zip codes are profoundly clear. Only 4% of residents living below the poverty line in Hammond earned a bachelor or post graduate college degree.  

As a sociologist, I have been concerned with the impact of all stressors, due to the harm they present for humans. Although, I have been more concerned with Traumatic stress. Traumatic stress occurs when a person experiences a life-threatening event which induces fear and feeling of helplessness (Cleveland Clinic, 2024). For example, during the 2005 hurricane season in New Orleans the surrounding citizens endured a great deal of trauma as a result of the levies breaking. People were helpless, hopeless, and there were no solutions for immediate relief. Tons of African Americans died or they were displaced to Baton Rouge, Hammond, Lake Charles, Texas, and other surrounding places.  

Figure 8: Pyramid of Risk Factors which lead to Early Death

Picture

As I have stated throughout the article. It’s not poverty, but instead the toxic stressors associated with poverty that are harmful. Adverse experiences can occur anywhere, they are more likely to occur in high poverty communities. African American, Latinos, and Native American are more likely to live in extreme poverty. As a result, they are more likely to deal with Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such a physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, domestic abuse, parental substance abuse, suicide or death, parental separation or divorce, and imprisonment of a family member. These factors flood the human body with cortisol. High levels of cortisol can be extremely harmful. “The CDC continues to collect data on ACEs and health outcomes. Some research has started to expand the definition of ACEs to include the impact of racism, oppression, and community violence (eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov, 2024). Researchers are finding similar correlations between other adverse experiences and long-term health outcomes: (https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov).

  • Racism 
  • Poverty 
  • Systemic Oppression 
  • Exposure to Community Violence 
  • Microaggressions 
  • Stereotype Threat 
  • Overly Punitive School Discipline 

The number of ACEs a person experiences more than not serve as a predictor of future outcomes for that individual over a lifecycle. As it relates to the researcher, before the age of 18 years of age, I was exposed to physical abuse, alcoholism, and seldom incarceration of a family member, constant shame, domestic abuse, and eventual divorce, but I was over the age of 18. Therefore, my ACE number is 4 or 5. I have been exposed to at least 5 of these ACE factors.  

Toxic Stress’s harmful Implications and Covid-19 Deaths for People Living in Poverty

During the peak of COVID-19 in 2020-2021, COVID 19 took advantage of people living with obesity, high blood pressure, lung disease, smokers, heart disease, diabetes, and essential workers. In other words, people of color more than not suffer from these debilitating illnesses. These very ailments more than not can be as a result of living under toxic stressors which permeates throughout communities with constant violence. Black and Brown people are more likely to live in neighborhoods which lack adequate resources as well as more likely to be exposed to ongoing social ills which promote traumatic events for people. Such is the case for African Americans living in Hammond, Louisiana. Constant exposure to trauma, negatively impacts the human body neurologically which includes the brain. We now know that a constant dose of cortisol due to constant stressors associated with poverty can pose harm and damage to body organs as well as contribute to early death. When COVID 19 hit, people living in poverty were already suffering from heart disease, lung disease, and/or diabetes. These people more than not were people of color. COVID 19 was unforgiving to people already suffering from chronic or severe illnesses. reflecting the many ways racial inequality in the U.S. has been highlighted over the past year, the life expectancy gap between Black and white people has also widened. According to PBS News Hour, “while the life expectancy of a white man dipped by eight-tenths of a year during the first six months of 2020, three years were shaved off the life of a Black man” (2021). This understanding of COVID 19 now serves as a predictor. Scientist, medical profession, and citizens now without a doubt, that COVID 19 has its way with people already suffering from poor health. If there should be a COVID 20 or 21, people living in harsh socioeconomic condition again will bear the brunt of the devastating virus.

https://www.pbs.org/newshour/health/covid-19-has-already-cut-u-s-life-expectancy-by-a-year-for-black-americans-its-worse

What is the research saying about Consequences and your ACE Score (0-10)?

“Researchers have identified how high-stress levels and trauma can change a child’s brain chemistry, brain architecture, and even gene expression. While nearly everyone experiences stress at some point, chronic stress sustained over time can damage the body and the brain, especially for children, because early childhood is critical for development” (Prevent Child Abuse, 2023, p 1). 

There is astonishing amount of reliable research from reputable institutions across this great country. Medical professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, and clinical workers agree that ongoing exposure to toxic stressors are horrible and a matter of life or death for so many people of color as well as the 18%of poor Whites who live in Hammond.

According to Harvard Medical School (2022), people who have 4 or more ACEs are 3x more likely to have lung disease due to adult smoking, 11x more likely to use intravenous drugs, 4x more likely to have sex before the age of 15, and have 14x the number of suicide attempts. These ailments increase the likelihood of early death due to chronic illness.

Figure 9: Adverse Childhood Experiences & Scores

https://info.primarycare.hms.harvard.edu/perspectives/articles/ace-scores-fifth-vital-sign

Life Expectancy for African Americans in Tangipahoa Parish & The United States 

“The NAACP and the Brookings Institution have partnered to develop tools and resources that will empower communities with data and information. The partnership’s primary project is the Black Progress Index, which provides a means to understand the health and well-being of Black people and the conditions that shape their lives” (Brookings, 2022, p. 1).  

The NAACP Black Progress Index (2022), shows the average National life expectancy in 2020 was 74.4 years. In Tangipahoa Parish in 2020, the average life expectancy was 71.1 years or 3.3 years less than the national age for African Americans.  

Tangipahoa Parish Cities and their African American Poverty Rate:

Kentwood, La’s African American Poverty rate is 26% and White poverty in Kentwood is at a rate of 32%. Ponchatoula, La African American poverty percentage is at 29% and White poverty is 20.12%. In Amite, the African American poverty rate is lowest at a rate of 15% and the White poverty rate at 15%. However, Hammond, La has the highest poverty rate at a rate of 56% for African Americans and 18% for White Americans living in Hammond, Louisiana. (World Population Review, 2024).

Figure 10: The Black Progress Index (Brookings Metro, 2022).

https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/prevention.html

What works? 

  • Communities where families have access to economic and financial help 
  • Communities where families have access to medical care and mental health services –       Communities with access to safe, stable housing are tremendously helpful. 
  • Communities where families have access to nurturing and safe childcare are great. 
  • Communities where families have access to high-quality preschool are helpful. 
  • Communities where families have access to safe, engaging after school programs and activities 
  • Communities where adults have work opportunities with family-friendly policies
  • Communities with strong partnerships between the community and business, health care, government, and other sectors 
  • Cut child poverty 
  • Families who create safe, stable, and nurturing relationships, meaning, children have a consistent family life where they are safe, taken care of, and supported (CDC.gov, 2024).

I am a very proud product of Hammond, LA. In the 70s & 80s we had awesome days riding our bikes with our BB guns to Zemurray Park for fishing and shooting bottles and cans.  I attended almost every school Hammond had to offer in the 70s & 80s. I began my schooling at Seventh Day Adventist preschool (Ms. Matthews) to Woodland Park (Maxine Dixon) to Mooney Ave School (K-3rd Freece Flowers), to Hammond Eastside (4th & 5th), to Crystal Street (6th), Annie Eastman (7th), Hammond Junior High (8th) Mr. Richardson, and Hammond High (9-12th) Dr. Beth Moulds. I am attended Southeastern for a little while, but I graduated from Grambling State University with a Bachelors (Psychology) and Masters in Sociology. 

I am simply giving back to the community which produced me. That’s what you do when you are cut from the same fabric. It makes giving back easy. I am giving back by utilizing my expertise to inform the school districts, community leaders, healthcare, citizens, universities, government officials, families, parents, and students.  

All children of Hammond deserve quality health care, mental healthcare, an abundance of food, caring parents, a quality education, and a vibrant community safe from violence and gun violence.  

Solutions to help combat Poverty & Adverse Childhood Experiences 

Preventing ACEs 
 
Strategy Approach 
Strengthen economic supports to families Strengthening household financial security Family-friendly work policies 
Promote social norms that protect against violence and adversity Public education campaigns Legislative approaches to reduce corporal punishment Bystander approaches Men and boys as allies in prevention 
Ensure a strong start for children Early childhood home visitation High-quality childcare Preschool enrichment with family engagement 
Teach skills Social-emotional learning Safe dating and healthy relationship skill programs Parenting skills and family relationship approaches 
Connect youth to caring adults and activities Mentoring programs After-school programs 
Intervene to lessen immediate and longterm harms Enhanced primary care Victim-centered services Treatment to lessen the harms of ACEs Treatment to prevent problem behavior and future involvement in violence Family-centered treatment for substance use disorders 
Center for Disease and Control

https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/prevention.html

What works? 

  • Communities where families have access to economic and financial help 
  • Communities where families have access to medical care and mental health services –       Communities with access to safe, stable housing are tremendously helpful. 
  • Communities where families have access to nurturing and safe childcare are great. 
  • Communities where families have access to high-quality preschool are helpful. 
  • Communities where families have access to safe, engaging after school programs and activities 
  • Communities where adults have work opportunities with family-friendly policies
  • Communities with strong partnerships between the community and business, health care, government, and other sectors 
  • Cut child poverty 
  • Families who create safe, stable, and nurturing relationships, meaning, children have a consistent family life where they are safe, taken care of, and supported (CDC.gov, 2024).

I am a very proud product of Hammond, LA. In the 70s & 80s we had awesome days riding our bikes with our BB guns to Zemurray Park for fishing and shooting bottles and cans.  I attended almost every school Hammond had to offer in the 70s & 80s. I began my schooling at Seventh Day Adventist preschool (Ms. Matthews) to Woodland Park (Maxine Dixon) to Mooney Ave School (K-3rd Freece Flowers), to Hammond Eastside under Mr. Rudolph Gibson (4th & 5th), to Crystal Street (6th), Annie Eastman (7th), Hammond Junior High (8th) under Mr. Richardson, and Hammond High (9-12th) under Dr. Beth Moulds and Mr. Edward Dillon. I am attended Southeastern for a little while, but I graduated from Grambling State University with a Bachelors (Psychology) and Masters in Sociology. 

I am simply giving back to the community which produced me. That’s what you do when you are cut from the same fabric. It makes giving back easy. I am giving back by utilizing my expertise to inform the school districts, community leaders, church leaders, healthcare, citizens, universities, government officials, families, parents, and students.  

All children of Hammond, LA deserve quality health care, mental healthcare, an abundance of food, caring parents, a quality education, and a vibrant community safe from any form of violence, which includes gun violence.  

References 

Adverse Childhood Experiences Prevention Resource for Action A Compilation of the Best 

Available Evidence. (2019). https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/ACEs-

Prevention-Resource_508.pdf 

America, P. C. A. (2021, June 14). Long Term Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect. Prevent Child Abuse America. https://preventchildabuse.org/latest-activity/long-term-effects-of-childabuse-and-neglect/?gclid=CjwKCAiAk9itBhASEiwA1my_6yU-8NCC2OgQj4Bfh6KxVRfTAW7So0jFHQRlEjJ_YhY2MqXR8Li1xoCpkQQAvD_BwE

CDC. (2020, September 3). ACEs Can Be Prevented. Www.cdc.gov. 

https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/prevention.html

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, September 3). CDC-Kaiser ACE Study

Www.cdc.gov. https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/aces/about.html 

Eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov. https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/publication/trauma-adverse-childhoodexperiences-aceshttps://info.primarycare.hms.harvard.edu/perspectives/articles/ace-scores-fifth-vital-sign

Hathaway, B. (2020, February 20). Want to live longer? Stay in school, study suggests

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2019). Essentials for Childhood Creating Safe, Stable, Nurturing Relationships and Environments for All Children National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Division of Violence Prevention enter for Injury Prevention and Control Violence Preventionhttps://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/essentials-for-childhood-framework508.pdf

Pediatricians | Phoenix Children’s Hospital. (n.d.). Www.phoenixchildrens.org. Retrieved January 30, 2024, from https://www.phoenixchildrens.org/center-resiliency-andwellbeing-crw/pediatricians

Reeves, R. (2022). Time will not heal: 5 ways to address the inheritance of Black poverty, starting now. (n.d.). Brookings. https://www.brookings.edu/articles/time-will-not-heal-5ways-to-address-the-inheritance-of-black-poverty-starting-now/

Simons, R. L., Woodring, D., Simons, L. G., Sutton, T. E., Lei, M.-K., Beach, S. R. H., Barr, A. 

B., & Gibbons, F. X. (2019). Youth Adversities Amplify the Association between Adult 

D. Brendan Johnson, (2022). ACE Scores: The New Fifth Vital Sign. Harvard Medical School Retrieved from https://info.primarycare.hms.harvard.edu/perspectives/articles/ace-scores-fifth-vital-sign

Stressors and Chronic Inflammation in a Domain Specific Manner: Nuancing the Early 

Life Sensitivity Model. Journal of Youth and Adolescence48(1), 1–16. 

Marable, Manning and Lieth Mullings. 2000. “ Introduction: Resistance, Reform and Renewal in the Black Experience,” In Let Nobody Turn Us Around: Voices of Resistance, Reform and Renewal. Eds. Marable, Manning and Lieth Mullings. New York: Roman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., pgs. xvii-xxv.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-018-0977-4

Soken-Huberty, E. (2020, February 13). What Does Social Justice Mean? Human Rights Careers. https://www.humanrightscareers.com/issues/what-does-social-justicemean/#:~:text=Justice%20is%20the%20concept%20of

The Black Progress Index. (n.d.). Brookings. Retrieved January 30, 2024, from https://www.brookings.edu/articles/the-black-progress-index/

Trauma and Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) | ECLKC. (2020, April 7). 

World Population Review (2024). Retrieved from https://worldpopulationreview.com/us-cities/hammond-la-population on February 1, 2024.

YaleNews. https://news.yale.edu/2020/02/20/want-live-longer-stay-school-study-suggests 

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